Ableism societally enabled or nondisabled people have the institutional power, therefore Ableism . Ableism involves both denying access to disabled people and exclusive attitudes of nondisabled persons.
An ableist society is said to be one that treats nondisabled individuals as the standard of ‘normal living’, which results in public and private places and services, education, and social work that are built to serve 'standard' people, thereby inherently excluding those with various disabilities. (from StopAbleism.org)
Disabled folks can be agents of ableism as well (particularly when acting as representatives of abelist systems, such as higher education) by perpetuating the notion of enabled or nondisabled superiority and using it to discriminate against other disabled people. For example, a wheelchair-enabled hiring manager may eliminate a chronically ill candidate from a job pool because he feels the candidate, though well-qualified, will not be reliable or have the capacity for the job demands due to their illness.
Anti-Ableism is strategies, theories, actions, and practices that challenge and counter ableism, inequalities, prejudices, and discrimination based on developmental, emotional, physical, or psychiatric (dis)ability.
Accessibility means access. It refers to the ability for everyone, regardless of disability or special needs, to access, use, and benefit from everything within their environment. It is the “degree to which a product, device, service, or environment is available to as many people as possible.”
Founded on the principles of Universal Design, the goal of accessibility is to create an inclusive society for people with physical, mobility, visual, auditory, intellectual, developmental, cognitive, health, and other disabilities. This means everyone has equal access to perceive, understand, engage, navigate, and interact with all elements of the physical and digital world. (from CNIB.ca)
Ableism and ableist societies restrict accessibility, either consciously or unconsciously, by designing physical locations/buildings, technology, transportation systems, communication systems, etc. that meet the needs of nondisabled people and dismiss the needs of disabled people. Disabled people, therefore, are primarily disadvantaged not by their difference or diagnoses, but by the society that disregards and marginalizes their needs and restricts accessibility.
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Abled, Enabled, or Nondisabled privilege refers to the unearned benefits that American society and many other societies and cultures accord to enabled and/or nondisabled people. This privilege is rooted in two cultural beliefs: 1) that a "normal" human being is one who can see, walk, hear, talk, etc. and has no significant physical, cognitive, emotional, developmental, or intellectual divergence, and 2) that disability is "abnormal" and therefore a (social) disadvantage. These beliefs or societal models mean that many cultures, including the US, have set up social expectations, structures, cultural mores, and institutions to accommodate nondisabled and/or enabled people by default and that dismiss and/or marginalize the needs and experiences of disabled and/or differently abled people. Enabled/Nondisabled privilege privilege speaks to how not having a disability or not being perceived as having a disability means not having to think or address topics that those without enabled/nondisabled privilege have to deal with, often on a daily basis.
To give you an idea of enabled/nondisabled privilege, here are some examples of the benefits enabled/nondisabled people receive:
Abled, Enabled, or Nondisabled fragility is a state in which even a minimum amount of privilege stress becomes intolerable, triggering a range of defensive moves. These moves include the outward display of emotions such as anger, fear, and guilt, and behaviors such as tears, argumentation, silence, and leaving the stress-inducing situation. These behaviors, in turn, function to reinstate enabled equilibrium. (adapted from "White Fragility")
The dominant association between "normal" and "enabled or nondisabled" allows most enabled people to live in social environments that insulate them from challenging encounters with abilities, accessibility perspectives, or people who differ from themselves. Within this dominant social environment, enabled people come to expect social comfort and a sense of belonging and that their perspective of "normal" is correct by default. When this comfort is disrupted, enabled people are often at a loss because they have not had to build skills for constructive engagement with differently enabled and disabled people and their social perspectives. They may become defensive, positioning themselves as victims of anti-ableist work and co-opting the rhetoric of violence to describe their experiences of being challenged on enabled/nondisabled privilege. (adapted from "Christian Fragility")
Being a Supportive Ally
A- always center the impacted— Kayla Reed (@RE_invent_ED) June 13, 2016
L- listen & learn from those who live in the oppression
L- leverage your privilege
Y-yield the floor