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Frederick E. Berry Library and Learning Commons

Salem Academy Charter School

Why Cite?

Citation is a method of attribution that indicates your work came from another source (acknowledging the source).  It is important to cite sources to avoid plagiarism, but it is also important to cite sources so readers can learn more about your topic or research background.  Citation also lets readers know how much effort you put into the research for your paper.  Citing other's ideas also lends credibility to your ideas.  It is also important to "distinguish" your ideas from others, and to know that they are supported or differentiated from other's ideas.

Citation Styles

Purdue OWL Guides for tips on APA format, MLA format and more!

Citation - Reflects the information needed to locate a particular source.

Bibliography - Lists citations for all of the relevant resources.

Annotated Bibliography - Each citation is followed by a brief note that describes and/or evaluates the source.

In-text citation - Consists just enough information to correspond to a source's full citation in a works cited list. Requires a page number(s) showing exactly where relevant information was found in the original source.

AMA - (American Medical Association). Used in medicine, health, and biological sciences.

APA - (American Psychological Association). Used in social science disciplines, like psychology and education.

Chicago - Used with all subjects in the "real world" by books, magazines, newspapers, and other non-scholarly publications.

MLA - (Modern Language Association). Used in literature, arts and humanities disciplines.

Annotated Bibliography

An Annotated Bibliography is a list of citations where each entry is followed by a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph. Purdue OWL Annotated Bibliography website gives you in-depth examples of annotated bibliographies, and explain how to prepare one. 

Parts of the Bibliography Examples
Citation information

Example of a reference (Chicago format):

McVenna, Mary Jane, Jayne Smith, & Paula Gant. 2019. "Standards of Care: A Collective Meaning for Nursing." Nursing Times. 143 (23): 40–42. /10.1188/106256204478.

Short statement of the author's viewpoint

Example of sentence starters:

  • In this article, McVenna and Gant reviews . . .
  • This article examines . . .
  • The authors describe . . .
  • The author’s purpose is to challenge . .

Short summary of the research, findings, argument. 



Comment on the usefulness or limitations for your research

Example of sentence starters:

  • The main ideas expressed are . . .
  • Support for these claims is documented . . .
  • McVenna and Gant has conducted a thorough investigation of . . .
  • The author’s research focuses on . . .

Example of sentence starters:

  • The author provides a strong theoretical . . .
  • The writing style considers a range of audiences . .
  • Theories are supported by well-known researchers in this field, such as . . .
  • There is a lack of supporting evidence . . .
Comment on how the article will fit into your research

Example of sentence starters:

  • This article is useful for the research topic . . .
  • Because the information is up-to-date and from a reliable source . . .
  • It is relevant to the thesis because . . .
  • In particular, this article will assist . . .

Example (Chicago format):

McVenna, Mary Jane, Jayne Smith, & Paula Gant. 2019. "Standards of Care: A Collective Meaning for Nursing." Nursing Times. 143 (23): 40–42. /10.1188/106256204478.

The article examines the meaning of the word ‘care’ within a nursing context. The responsibility of nurses to provide care is well-documented in numerous medical reports, and the authors go on to identify key concepts related to nursing care. In particular, these concepts include assisting, helping and giving a service; offering this service to people who need help with daily living activities and to others who are affected by ill health of some kind. Moreover, the nurse’s caring role is validated by the needs and expectations of their patients. Finally, the article concludes by relating how these concepts are put into operation by using the steps of the nursing process: assessing, planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating the patient’s need for nursing care. The main limitation of the article is that all of the research was exclusively conducted in large city hospitals. Therefore, while the article is useful for an analysis of nursing care, the limitations of its research base will require some adaption to be an inclusive commentary on services in both city and country area hospitals.