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Frederick E. Berry Library and Learning Commons

Salem State University: Faculty Publications 2019

Joanna Gonsalves

Belezos, C.N., Gonsalves, J., Lynch, C., Metchik, E.Y., & Richards, P. (2019). Optimizing service-learning for self-efficacy and learner empowerment. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning 25 (2). 

A framework widely used in the field of industrial-organizational psychology, the Job Characteristics Model (JCM) (Hackman & Oldham, 1976), was applied in the current study to measure the quality of students’ service-learning experiences as they relate to student outcomes. It was hypothesized that service-learning projects with higher motivating potential, in terms of characteristics underlying job satisfaction according to the JCM, would lead to greater increases in learner motivation and general self-efficacy. Study participants were 228 students engaged in service-learning courses at five community colleges and one state university in the Northeastern United States. The results showed that changes in students’ self-efficacy scores were moderated by the motivating potential of service-learning courses. Furthermore, learner empowerment appeared to be a partial mediator of this relationship. The study provides support for the application of the JCM in designing service-learning experiences to strengthen students’ course motivation and self-efficacy.


Rebecca Hains

Hains, R. C. & Mazzarella, S. R. (Eds.) (2019). Cultural studies of LEGO: More than just bricks. Palgrave.


Hains, R. C. & Shewmaker, J. W. (2019). I just don’t really, like, connect to it: How girls negotiate LEGO’s gender-marketed toys. In R. C. Hains and S. R. Mazzarella (Eds.) Cultural Studies of LEGO: More Than Just Bricks (pp. 247-269). Palgrave.


Hains, R. C. (2019, August). How to respond if someone calls you racist. The Washington Post.


Hains, R. C. (2019, March). Barbie is 60. And she’s reinventing herself. The Washington Post.